The most extensive report on the issues facing the Broadcasting Board of Governors and US international broadcasting was released this week. "US International Broadcasting - Is Anybody Listening? - Keeping the US Connected" (1mb PDF) was prepared by the staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, under the leadership of senior professional staff member Paul Foldi, and is the best, if not the only, substantial review of its kind. The report describes the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) as transforming from its intent of a political "firewall" to a modern political "football" that has resulted in an average vacancy on the board of over 470 days. Even now, the new slate of members of the BBG has yet to be confirmed by the Senate.
Beyond staffing difficulties and the resulting repercussions, the report describes the fierce competition and imbalance, particularly with China and Russia, to engage listeners, viewers, and readers around the world. The report also recommends changes to the Smith-Mundt Act, describing the firewall as "anachronistic and potentially harmful."
Some highlights from the report:
- The current Board members have been emplaced since 2002. The Board has been without a Chairman since June 2008. The current Board members were emplaced in 2002. There have been between one and four vacancies on the Board since 2004. Candidates for a Board were submitted in November 2009, but action on them is still pending. Changes in the technical and geopolitical environment requires immediate attention, but the current Board is reluctant to address given the nominations waiting in the wings.
- Chinese has substantially increased its activities toward and from within the US while continuing to block US activities in China. VOA has two full-time reporters in China, while Chinese state media Xinghua has more than 70 in the US; Xinhua has 3 bureaus in the US, while China has blocked VOA's attempt to open a second bureau in China. China recently began broadcasting English-language radio programming from within the United States, while the US has been denied any reciprocal arrangements and must rely on Short-wave, AM, and internet - all of which are routinely blocked by China. In spite of this, the US has issued over 2,900 media visas to Chinese journalists since 2007.
- Russia has eliminated US broadcasting in Russia as it has cracked down on overall press freedom, falling to 174 out of 195 in Freedom House's 2009 Freedom of the Press Index. The result has been a reliance on the Internet.
- America's US Arabic-language television station Alhurra's $90 million budget is greater than the combined costs of Radio Free Asia, Radio/TV Marti and VOA's Persian News Network. While Alhurra's viewership numbers, with the exception of in Iraq, are marginal, US Arabic language Radio Sawa's mix of news and local and Western pop music has attracted a large following, though its listenership numbers are declining as its format is mimicked by others.
- VOA's Persian News Network and RFE's Radio Farda provided much needed news and information to Iranians yearning for information both about the rest of the world and their own nation. The report recognizes that in order for the BBG to be credible to its audience and draw in not just those who already agree with US policy, its networks must be permitted to present both sides of an argument. The report also notes the diametrically opposing arguments surrounding the BBG's Persian News Network.
- Marketing budgets for BBG entities either fluctuate wildly- as in the case of Alhurra which has spiked 2007-9 from $100,000 to $5,000 to $1,000,000, to Radio Free Asia, which received a mere $2,000 in 2009 despite being tasked with reaching over a billion people.
- Radio Free Asia, authorized on a temporary basis in 1994, serves six countries experiencing steadily dwindling levels of press freedom, none of which are ranked higher than 132 out of 195 countries by Freedom House.
- Smith-Mundt's firewall is anachronistic, potential harmful and ignores the reality of global diasporas, the Internet, and hamstrings our own government while foreign governments and broadcasters have no similar impediments. The report cites Russian and Chinese governments actively broadcast in the US,
This report is required reading to understand the current environment. There is simply no other similar survey available. It is objective and non-partisan (sure a Democrat may not have highlighted one or two items but any other Republican would likely have emphasized the same items for political rather than discursive effect).
This is, according to Senator Lugar, the "first of several reports I have asked Mr. Foldi to initiate this year addressing major Public Diplomacy issues." We are fortunate Senator Lugar and his staff care so deeply about America's public diplomacy that they are willing to spend the time and energy to explore and understand the nuts and bolts of America's communication and engagement for no one else inside Government has stepped up, not even the sixty-plus year old presidentially-appointed, Senate-confirmed body called the US Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy.
Read the whole report here.
- Make Knowledge about America Accessible: Move the Libraries Outside the Walls from 18 February 2009 on Senator Lugar's report about the lack of access to America's public diplomacy libraries, officially known as "Information Resource Centers"
- Lugar to the rescue: senate committee backs 'science envoy' plan from 5 May 2009 by Nick Cull at USC CPD
- Senator Lugar: Information is Power from 8 January 2010 on Senator Lugar's ForeignPolicy.com article titled "Twitter vs Terror"
- Absent Leadership in Public Diplomacy from 17 September 2009